Ichak Adizes — Ph. D. and an expert in the field of improving the company's efficiency. He says that despite the differences in education, politics and culture, every manager faces the same problems: the boss is not happy with subordinates who don't bring the company to development, and employees resent the leadership of the boss, who, as they believe, can not effectively manage the organization. Based on this, Adizes identified 4 types of managers.
4 types of leadership from Ichak Adizes
Ichak Adizes proposed a personal management system in which these four key types of leadership forms look like a combination of four functions:
- Producing, P – achieving high results.
- Administrating, A – harmony in processes, functions of the administrator.
- Entrepreneurship, E – innovative ideas, forecasts and adjustment of changes.
- Integrating, I – maintaining a favorable atmosphere in the workplace, pleasant for cooperation and interaction of people.
Each person, according to Ichak, realizes them all, but only one of them is developed and expressed most vividly. You can find out your type by taking the Adizes test online for free. The results will make it clear who you are:
- Paei – the leader with the most developed trait of the Producer;
- pAei – the best Administrator. He can perform functions of other behaviors, but not as well;
- paEi – traits of the Entrepreneur. He has skills of all other behavioral types, but they are poorly developed;
- paeI – Integrator. He knows how to bring people together to do a common job, but he has poorly developed skills in other types of management.
The essence of this system is that a PAEI person who has all four types of managers developed at a high level does not exist.
The distinctive features of the Manufacturer are the desire to work for the result, as well as an understanding of the specifics, the essence of their activities and its regularities. The manufacturer is a person who must have a goal. He has a high motivation to achieve success and visible results.
Analyzing the 4 types of Adizes managers, we can identify the questions and answers that each type is prone to. So, the manufacturer is an exact person. If he agrees, it means "Yes" and nothing else. If he refuses or denies, it means an exceptional "No" and there are no other meanings or interpretations of his answer. The Producer answers the question «What?»
In the PAEI (Adizes Code), the author gives each type of manager its own separate designation. So, he calls a Paei person an "Lone Hero" who is ready to take on all the work on his shoulders. The main characteristic of people Producers is the following:
- productivity, hard work;
- focus on achievements;
- there is more action than reflection and analysis;
The motto of the Paei people is: "If there is a mindset to hit the target, you need to shoot first."
When the Producer doesn't perform its role well, then this can lead to the following problems:
- lack of understanding of how the work should be done – qualitatively or in terms of volume;
- the disbalance between home, family and work;
- disagreements with other participants in the workflow;
- excessive hard work, high intensity of work without a sense of proportion that leads to the detriment of the health;
- difficulties in applying their powers.
Subordinates of a Lone Hero leader perform secondary tasks, while he himself solves the most complex, important and urgent cases. The problem arises when he himself understands that one person cannot execute such a large amount of work.
Advise to the Producer leader:
- Take part in the discussion of working moments. It's important to listen to the opinions of other participants, and draw conclusions.
- Take your partners' suggestions seriously, think about who said what.
- Don't make decisions at lightning speed. You need give yourself time to think.
- Don't completely abandon the opinions of employees.
- It is important to understand that an ideal management model is impossible to achieve, but this doesn't mean that it's not necessary to strive for it.
- Think about how others would like to work and how they would like to act in each of the situations.
A Lone Hero may well invest his energy in training his colleagues or subordinates to make them work better and faster.
Details analyzing – is an Administrator's job. Other distinctive characteristics of this character include the regulation of work processes, tracking the work of each participant. He makes sure that everything in the company goes as it should be going and clearly according to plan. Analyzing the 4 types of managers according to Yitzhak Adizes, we can say that the Administrator type is distinguished by increased caution.
If he answers in the affirmative, it always means "Yes" for the reason that he has already checked everything personally and more than once. By saying "No", the pAei person doesn't always put all the categoricity in this word. Most likely, he means "Maybe". And all because the Administrator is very careful.
His main question is " How?" At a time when the Producer is working on the result, the pAei Administrator is passionate about the process and ensuring that it complies with the rules, laws and other regulations. Adizes gives the second type the nickname "Bureaucrat".
The Adizes methodology works in real life. Every person after analyzing all types of management, as a rule, finds in them a reflection from their real life. For example, a bureaucrat performs work according to instructions, norms, and requirements. And even more: he comes up with these rules himself, and then assures everyone that they need to be followed and there is no other way, it is impossible to evade them in any case.
Key characteristics of the Administrator
- following the law;
- the ability to see the problem before it appears, to anticipate difficulties;
- logical thinking;
- consistency in the performance of their duties;
- special attention to detail;
- orderliness, methodicalness;
- the desire to manage others;
- love of numbers, statistics, calculations.
With the wrong approach to work and the performance of his role as a "Bureaucrat", this type of manager can face the following problems:
- not enough attention is paid to the meaning of the work, as all forces are directed to its form;
- lost perspective;
- a lot of time is spent on resolving issues with details, on formalities;
- excessive adherence to rules and laws;
- authority and charisma are lost;
- there are problems with employees, it's difficult to get along with them, to work under the same roof;
- reduced performance due to the fact that a lot of effort is spent on analysis.
Subordinates of the Bureaucrat are obliged to simply agree with his decisions, because they have no other choice.
Advise to the Administrator type:
- It's important to learn how to take risks and deviate from the plan. Sometimes ingenious solutions are found in extreme unusual conditions.
- You can create to-do lists for each employee in advance, while highlighting the most important and secondary ones. If the employee failed to achieve success in minor tasks, it's not necessary to punish him severely.
- It's better to consider each situation separately.
- It's worth understanding that to save a company or a good employee, you often have to deviate from the plan.
- You need to learn to distinguish the real opinion of employees from the one that they voice, just to please you.
- You should sometimes allow yourself and others to make spontaneous decisions.
- You need to ask yourself every day what else you can change.
The Administrator is so arranged that he always tries to minimize any uncertainties. But to achieve high success in business, it is important to be able to get out of your comfort zone.
This type of manager can be called an idea generator. At the same time, he can put forward both very good and extremely bad thoughts. But the Producer can implement his ideas, because he himself doesn't have the necessary skills and personal qualities for this.
Describing 4 types of leadership, Adizes says that the ideal Entrepreneur is a person who combines the skills of "P" and "E". He must be able to take risks.
The main question of an Entrepreneur is "What if?" If he doesn't say "No", then it means "Maybe". But when he said "No" – it means a firm "No". The fact is that he is constantly looking for solutions to various issues. If he found one option, checked it and confirmed it, then all other actions will be rejected completely.
In Adizes's methodology, this type is called an "Arsonist", since his question" What if? "is usually transformed into" Why not? " The Entrepreneur is always offering ideas, over time more and more, encouraging employees to turn them into reality.
So, the main characteristics of the Arsonist:
- strong charisma;
- a penchant for innovation;
- increased daydreaming, making up;
- the need for a limitless field for generating ideas and thoughts;
- negative attitude to detalization;
- using programs to monitor the work of subordinates (for example, such as a simple time tracker Checkiant);
- the desire for change;
If an Entrepreneur doesn't cope with his tasks and doesn't know how to engage his abilities in the right direction, he may face such difficulties:
- loss of enthusiasm;
- doing work at the last moment;
- poor performance;
- inconsistency in the execution of actions;
- violation of the established plan.
If you see yourself as an Arsonist, then the following recommendations are for you:
- Choose a person from the staff who would have the courage to challenge your decisions and you would not be angry about it.
- You don't have to start from scratch if something goes wrong. Sometimes it's enough to make minor changes to get things right.
- Take into account not only the details and strategy, but also the facts.
- Split your to-do list into priority and secondary tasks.
- React to the disagreement of others calmly, without aggression.
The main problem of the Arsonist is the inability to listen to other people. He needs to learn to listen more and talk less.
The main task of this type is to unite people. He works in an uncertain environment, as there are so many employees gathered around him and everyone has their own thoughts, plans, ideas, and so on.
The Integrator's question is "Who?" And it's not the only one. The second question is "How to do something together?" For a paeI person, the main goal is to unite people, to establish a relationship between them. Another thing that is very important for an Integrator is conflict resolution. It keeps the atmosphere in the company friendly, pleasant and positive.
This type of leader tends to minimize categoricality in any judgments. That is why his "Yes" and his" No "are equally reacted to as "Maybe". Adizes calls this type "An ardent supporter".
A person of type "I" has several important distinguishing characteristics, including the following:
- is able to identify the leader;
- knows how to listen and understand;
- maintains a favorable working environment;
- is a good empath;
If he doesn't perform his role well, such problems can be observed:
- loses sight of important tasks due to obsession with relationships in the team;
- trying to please everyone, which annoys others;
- very hard going through rejections;
- creates the illusion of consent, so as not to offend people, which negatively affects the workflow.
The following recommendations can be given:
- You don't have to agree with everyone. Learn to say a firm "No".
It's important to understand that solving a problem is often more important than other people's feelings.
Healthy tension and discussion in a group can lead to the search for a new idea.
Allow employees to argue, because in disputes emerges truth.
To find out your PAEI, you can use the online test. All you need to do is answer the questions, choose the appropriate answer and get an analysis of your answers with individual recommendations from the Adizes Institute.
The questionnaire will suggest whether or not to agree with the judgments. The test will show everyone for free in which role of a manager he will look most profitable and work most effectively, as well as describe his talents, qualities, pros and cons.
P.S. Learn more about your managerial behavior will help the type of manager by color according to Max Lusher, which is an excellent addition to the method of Ichak Adizes.